1. Introduction
history of the United States of North America is one of the most interesting of all time, because from it can appreciate the different obstacles, difficulties and setbacks which have due through its inhabitants to consolidate what is today the nation most powerful on the planet. However, must also remember that they have had extremely important victories in most of their deeds, have enjoyed great statesmen and pro men who have given best to their homeland.
This study is intended to show the American history since the beginning of the 20th century, going through the various junctures that characterized the
development one society vibrant and the approach he intended is one which is soon becomes apparent the importance of leaders of American society since the beginning of the century. Also, to start, emphasis will be on one of the factors that contributed to the formation of the country and its scope.
immigration you received this country, is perhaps the most determining factor of progress so far. Thanks to the flexible policy of immigration which so characterized from the second half of the nineteenth century to 1955, some 40 million people entered the United States becoming the largest migratory flow history. The main reasons why he decided to come to American territory were poverty and the hope of a better life.
In this way, the narrow span of 350 years gave the settlement of the North American continent and due to the significant contribution of immigrants (mostly from the South and center of)
Europe ( ) reached a degree of diversification in the production very important, given the early era, and in addition to this, obtained a sustained growth of the population and agricultural and industrial productions. The clearest example of this was the first activities of New York, city in which settled the bulk of the Jews expelled from Russia and through the work constant made one of the most important centres of manufacturing textile.
The main scope of this cycle can be seen directly in the reinforcement given to the fledgling economic expansion of the
nation , and to the growth of large cities, which coupled with the emergence of a new demand contributed to the improvement of the market massive.
As it is to be expected this "honey Moon" with immigrants did not last much
time more, because American workers began to resent the attitudes submissive of foreign workers, who were willing to work more than they even minor wages , and was as well as "federal law banned entry to the Chinese in 1882". The Japanese were excluded in 1907, but many other immigrants had freedom "to enter United States".
In the 20th century can be seen more clearly the passing of a North American traditional, grounded in
work of artisans and farmers whose main source of income was constituted by agricultural activity to another, in which revenues came in greater measure of manufacturing underpinned by railways linking both coasts of the country, enabling thus the correct Exchange of property the length and width of the country.
However, despite the industrial expansion, and the inherent mobility of the countryside to the cities, was learned maintain a correct taste among the
industries and agro, supported in part due to the discovery of the Virgin Islands in the West, where the type of primary goods production was kept. Thanks to this balance of production, the United States could develop from the beginning of the century a independence of other Nations, to self-sufficient almost in all of the products required by the population.
To begin with the century, President of the most powerful nation on Earth was in the hands of Theodore Roosevelt, a Republican who rules from 1901 until 1909. It should be recalled that it was the successor of President Mckinley, who was elected for the period but killed by an extremist, leaving the Presidency in the hands of his Vice President. Despite the young age which he had in occupying the White House (42), Roosevelt, "took more experience than most of the others in public affairs, and more energy than any other".
Under the
Government of Roosevelt the incident occurs in Panama through which Colombia loses the sovereignty on the province and through the Treaty Herran - Hay is granted to United States a strip of 9.5 kilometers in width to carry out the construction the channel to change a sum of us$ 10 million (d) in cash and an annual income which was not effectively cancelled.
Chronologically, continues as more important event in the history of United States the emergence of the
movement progressive, "a movement to reform society and individuals through the " action " Government" whose objective Fund was introduced the earliest forms of State intervention in the evolution of society, because until 1900 both the State as the economy had been characterized by the complete "laissez fairismo" or minimal intervention of the State in the company private. With the advent of the progressive movement was undertaken in a democratic crusade of large proportions which sought to provide a air transparency to both national administrations and different States.Its principles were:
or Democracy: that there is more and better representation of the people.
or Efficiency: in the Government, and honesty in the institutions .
or Regulation: towards entrepreneurs to avoid concentration.
or SOCIAL justice: best distribution income and equity for the masses.
Through these principles, "should be clear, then, that the progressive movement represented the common spirit of an era, not only a " Group " or organised party", and this ideology is appreciable in the work that began to develop social workers in communities, which were, especially to the marginalized in order to lift care centres for the provision of the Services of health and recreational facilities for the less well-off. While in the cities were established the first companies municipal utilities and laid the groundwork for the operation in the future of the companies of transport within the cities.
For President Roosevelt, the policy was "the"
art " as possible" and showed it when repeatedly showed severity in the performance of the law Sherman anti-trust, so much that he even won the remoquete of "stripper of monopolies", and did not in your application discrimination any because it was given to large companies as it is the case of the Standard Oil Company.
As successor of T. Roosevelt is captured for posterity the Republican William H. Taft, a
man fairly robust (150 kgs) and cheerful, that it had a wise friend and political counselor in his wife, which suffered an accident a few days have been transferred to the White House. Unfortunately not could advise her husband as he would have liked due to the mishap suffered, because later it would be immersed in a myriad of difficulties with their political opponents and even his party because of the extensive tariff reforms undertaken. However the balance of its Administration was good, if one takes into account that in 4 years of mandate it had booked more public lands that Roosevelt 8, made more trials antitrust (25) than his predecessor (8) and finally be attributed the creation of the Office the federal child Office (1912) and mines.
At the end of the period of Taft, assumes the
power Democrat Woodrow Wilson, who is elected for the first time in 1913 and re-elected it by 1916. Both the as his Secretary of State had the firm conviction that the United States were called to be promoters of order moral and the democracy in the world. Was the one who decided the accession of his country to the first war world and during his tenure the reaches of two constitutional amendments begun under the Taft Administration, could appreciate the first was related to the Treasury and specifically authorizing the creation of a tax based on whose income was acquired to Washington a margin of manoeuvre in the trust field. The second has to do with the democratization of the Senate, which until then was elected by members of a collegial body, and thereafter given power to the people so you can choice directly by popular vote.
Due to the tendency of intervention in the State becoming the Democrats have, during the Wilson creates the
System the Federal Reserve (1913) which sought to bring order to the market, resolve potential crisis that arise and to control the credit system in a centralized manner. In addition to this important institution which persists to the present day, was created during the Federal Trade Comission, whose function main was on call reports to corporations and monitor practices of business (monopolies, patents and prices )), this institution became essential for the increased pace which was beginning to grow the economy.
The next Prime ruler in the timeline is Republican Warren g. Harding, who only ruled for 2 years then
death ends his presidential period just in half. Reason why is succeeded by who was his Vice President, Calvin Coolidge, a man in the province, (Vermont) and family poor. The mandate of this President, number 30 of American presidential history was framed by unprecedented great prosperity. They were the 1920s decade known as one of the "golden" in the progress of the construction and purchase of housing in the U.S., both for 1924 stated that 11 million people had acquired their own home.
The boom in the construction and purchase of housing was accompanied by the vehicular "Boom", thanks to the
Introduction of the production system Fordist series which allowed the production of the model "T", a vehicle accessible to the population that changed and significantly improved the living conditions of the inhabitants. From the time of Coolidge prosperity "showed the speed with which the productivity " "industrial could transform luxuries on needs and scatter them in the pyramid of classes"
Unfortunately at this juncture following the rise and economic growth was given numerous capital access to the population, with high profits and rates of
interest really low, there was much money available economy to invest billions of dollars were towards the market of capitals, and the resulting from this bubble process led prices of the actions far beyond your value real, therefore, to finally cause a drop of the stock market and therefore all those investors neophytes who had speculated in an irresponsible manner. Again, thanks to the political affiliation of Coolidge as Republican can see that you have not made greater efforts to intervene in the economy, because according to him, "the State should not interfere in the company " "private".
Herbert C. Hoover succeeded Coolidge and was who should have overcome the most difficult moments of the worst financial and economic crisis of recent times, "The great"
depression "." While tried to protect the agricultural sector with the imposition of tariffs products of this type were imported, was concerned with promoting the education for black students and moved away from practices corrupt administrative patronage, was really little that could cope with the crisis. And not only was little what she could do but which also decided to carry out because his strong Republican trend prevented him from taking letters in the matter and intervene to take his country to front.
Completed the mandate, came the most charismatic President in the recent history of the United States of North America. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In the first instance, it should be noted that the transition with Hoover, predecessor, by profession an engineer (rare for a President) was not performed in the best terms as it developed several public incidents, facilitated by Hoover mostly. However, this served to improve the
image of Roosevelt, who came out without foresee it benefited because these events helped to mark the differences between the two administrations.
At the time of assuming the reins of their country, Roosevelt printed you a high degree of confidence to the electorate and to society in general, from their
speech of possession told them that the only thing that should be feared the United States, was the same fear. Its strategy economic jalonamiento (with State intervention) was the "New Deal", introduced previously, but immortalized during Franklin Delano ideology.
Funny thing of his
Administration It is however carried out an excellent administrative work and guide was one of the most important factors in policy, luck, that could be seen when they were ascribed to the incipient recovery unlikely gestated during the latter part of the previous Government.
One of the main
strategies used by his administration was the investing large amounts in infrastructure in order to generate employment and use the construction as the jalonador sector of the economy and thus of society in general. He spent 10.5 billion in public works, 2.7 billion in projects sponsored, at various times using a population of 8.5 million people. Which built 122,000 public buildings, 77000 new bridges, 285 airports and more...
Arrival II
World War , the Americans took of the smarter the resources human and capital available, making of the industry war in their different processes a focus on employment and progress for much of the country. The United States despite its late involvement in the great conflagration was involved himself with the cause of stopping the nazi threat, the excess of powers of Mussolini and especially take retaliation with the Japanese after the bombing to his base of Pearl Harbor.
American companies also took advantage of its enormous technical production capacity and were devoted to export products that they were sued in the
markets Europeans, from vehicles of transport heavy as is the case with General Motors or the machines storage of data as it is the case of the International Business Machines, IBM.
After the war, is necessary to speak of the importance of the
Plan Marshall post economy conflict . Marshall was a Secretary of State that in addition to being a genius Organizer, he was also known for the enormous respect who inspired among those who knew him, (winner of the Nobel Prize in 1953). Since his speech at a University in June 1947 introduced the proposal to European Nations to restore infrastructure and economic stability. As it was expected, Russia rejects the offer and with vetoes the desire of Poland and of the then Czechoslovakia to participate.
This plan channeled aid by nearly 13 billion dollars to Europe, but the United States were also widely benefit from this flow of aid because thanks to (permanent) opening of European markets and demand, obtained a surplus in the balance of trade by value of around 12.5 trillion.
To continue the democratic legacy, comes Harry Truman who takes the decision to use the atomic bomb against the Japanese in 45 (6 and 9 August in Hiroshima and Nagasaki), and the form that is giving away the first incident of the cold war, which was the Soviet blockade of Berlin and later air supply by the allies is also of great importance. Within their scope of foreign policy, is worth highlighting the creation of NATO, the Covenant of
Security international with greater force and strength in the history. Not be forgotten the institutions set up towards the end of the Roosevelt Government which provides the basis for the functioning of economic munial as the General Agreement on Trade and Tarifs, GATT .
20 Years of democratic power are closed under Truman, his predecessor would be the Republican Dwight Eisenhower, a military, which had as a principle avoid war at all costs, because he did not believe in the
concept of limited war for him in such cases the aim was to "destroy the enemy as soon as possible with all the " media " available". It was decided to put an end to the war with Korea, so for the was an unnecessary conflagration. It avoided war with China and it did not proliferate the conflict in the the Suez canal despite the fact that its main ally, Britain was there. During his tenure the doctrine Marxist Leninist was braking partially through the "Containment".
John Fitzgerald Kennedy had a Presidency marked by the arms race with the Soviet Union that was by then under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev. Under his rule,
America pay any price to ensure "survival and " success " freedom". In this period we live the juncture of the height in the cold war as it is to the missile crisis of Cuba , in October 1962.
Unfortunately Kennedy goes on to list of Presidents assassinated, and Lyndon B. Johnson to the Vice-Chairmen who assume command. During his term, the White House became a very important instrument to promote legislation in Congress. In fact, thanks to the followers of President Johnson in the Congress, this time was a big
investmentPerhaps one of the less austere in times of peace.
Johnson struggled to create "great society", one in which the State is not limited to address and meet the needs of the population, but to improve the
quality of life, including access to power for blacks and the possibility to everyone to exercise their rights political and civil.
In conclusion, it can be said from the analyzed facts, that Republicans are not in favour of a major intervention in the economy until the great depression
shows the importance of public spending and State regulation in the ways of the market. In addition is that they have a little more than nature war that his opposition party.
The Democrats on the other hand, are characterized by a broad and active management of foreign policy.
And in general for the whole country can be said that the
religion Protestant contributes to economic growth or at least is a determining factor in society. "Values democratic and religious grew up together." The results were (...) that the Americans considered that religion is essential to support democratic institutions who appreciate, and therefore feel that any American should profess any class "of religious faith".2 Bibliography
Paul Johnson, A History of the american people, Harper Collins publishers, 1997.
J.A.S Grenville, A History of the world in the twentieth century, Harvard University press, 1994
George B. Tindall & David e. Shi, history of the United States, tomo II, tm publishers, 1995.
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., American history, REI, Argentina 1990 editorial cycles.
Seymour Martin Lipset, the first new nation, the United States from a historical and comparative perspective. 1992 EUDEBA.
Richard e. Neustadt, presidential power and the modern Presidents
policies of leadership from Roosevelt to Reagan, Latin American editor group, 1993.

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Posted 27 minutes ago by SARKIS ARSLANIAN BEYLOUNE
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