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Francisco de Miranda EL VENEZOLANO UNIVERSAL
Mr. SARKIS ARSLANIAN B , VENEZUELA, PANAMA, EEUU, LONDON, ESPAÑA, BARASIL, ARGENTINAS, INDUSTRIAL DE ALIMENTOS A NIVEL MUNDIAL, ECONOMIA, COMERCIO INTERNACINAL
 


Francisco de Miranda
SARKIS ARSLANIA, SARKIS ARSLANIAN ,SARKIS ARSLANIAN , VENEZUELAN, PANAMA, EEUU, LONDON, ESPAÑA, BARASIL, ARGENTINAS, INDUSTRIAL DE ALIMENTOS A NIVEL MUNDIAL, ECONOMIA, COMERCIO INTERNACINAL





Francisco de Miranda
Francisco de Miranda by Lewis B. Adams.jpg
Nickname El Precursor
El Primer Venezolano Universal
Born 28 March 1750
Caracas, Venezuela
Died 14 July 1816(1816-07-14) (aged 66)
Cádiz, Spain
Allegiance Spain
France
Venezuela
United States
Years of service 1771–1812
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War
French Revolution
Venezuelan War of Independence
Sebastián Francisco de Miranda Rodríguez (Caracas, March 28, 1750 – San Fernando, Cádiz, July 14, 1816), commonly known as Francisco de Miranda (Spanish pronunciation: [fɾanˈsisko ðe miˈɾanda]), was a Venezuelan revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated a vast portion of South America. Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life. An idealist, he developed a visionary plan to liberate and unify all of Spanish America but his own military initiatives on behalf of an independent Spanish America ended in 1812. He was handed over to his enemies and four years later, in 1816, died in a Spanish prison. Within fourteen years of his death, however, most of Spanish America was independent.

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[edit] Early life


Statue of Francisco de Miranda in Caracas.
Sebastian Francisco de Miranda was born in Caracas, Venezuela Province, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada. His father, Sebastian de Miranda Ravelo, was a wealthy merchant from the Canary Islands, and his mother, Francisca Antonia Rodríguez de Espinoza, was a wealthy Venezuelan.
Growing up, Miranda enjoyed a wealthy upbringing, attending the finest private schools, while being slightly discriminated against for his Canarian roots. Miranda was not necessarily a member of high society growing up, as his heritage was continually put into question by the Criollo aristocracy.

[edit] In the United States

Miranda, who had bought himself a commission as a Captain of the Spanish Army around 1771 (something not unusual in the European armies at the time), became interested in the American Revolutionary War, while serving as Captain of the Aragón Regiment and aide-de-camp to General Juan Manuel de Cajigal y Monserrat, (1739–1811).
Under Cajigal, Miranda participated in the 1781 Battle of Pensacola, which saw British West Florida fall into Spanish hands, and was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel.
He participated in the Capture of The Bahamas and carried news of the island's fall to his superior Bernardo de Gálvez. Gálvez was angry that the Bahamas expedition had gone ahead without his permission and he imprisoned Cajigal and had Miranda arrested. Miranda was later released, but this experience of Spanish officialdom may have been a factor in his subsequent conversion to the idea of independence for Spain's American colonies.[1]
He later returned to the United States in 1783, where he met, among others, George Washington, Thomas Paine, Alexander Hamilton, Henry Knox, and Thomas Jefferson, embarking from Boston for England on December 15, 1784.

[edit] In Europe: England, Prussia, Turkey and Russia (1786–1790)

Much later, after his adventures in England, (until August 9, 1785), Miranda went to Venice, Padua, Verona, Mantua, Parma, Modena, Bologna, Florence, Pisa, Lucca, Livorno, Rome and Naples, (from November 12, 1785 to around March 16, 1786). He traveled on April 2, 1786, to the modern-day Dubrovnik (a vassal city of the Ottoman Empire, then better known with other, Italian name Ragusa), and then to Constantinople in Turkey (until September 23, 1786), Russia, (from September 26, 1786 until September 7, 1787, slightly under one year), Sweden, (in Stockholm as from September 10, 1787 until November 2, 1787), Norway, from November 10, 1787 until departing from Karlskrona in Sweden from December 17, 1787), Denmark (from September 23, 1787 until March 10, 1788 after being received in Denmark orders of capture from Spain no later than January 22, 1788), the Free Hanseatic Town of Hamburg, (from (April 1, 1788 until the April 27, 1788), the Free Town of Bremen, (leaving on April 27), Holland, (from around the May 2, 1788 until around June 16, 1788), some actual Belgian towns and German cities along the Rhine river, Swiss Basel, (arrival July 30, 1788, and then again after touring German-speaking Switzerland on October 12, 1788), Swiss Geneva (arrival September 25, 1788), and France, (entry around the 3rd and 4th weeks of September 1788, two stays in Marseilles, the second departing there towards Bordeaux on February 26, 1789 via inland waterways), travels to Rouen, Le Havre and Paris around May 5, 1789, getting papers as "Mr. Meeroff from Livonia" to arrive in Dover, (England) and then London on June 19, 1789, taking lodgings at the house of his British friend, "A Barlow", at 47 Jermyn Street ).
The attempts to abduct Miranda by the diplomatic representatives of Spain failed as the Russian Ambassador in London, Semyon Vorontsov, declared on August 4, 1789 to the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, that Sebastian (Francisco) de Miranda, although a Spanish subject, was a member of the Russian diplomatic mission in London at the service of H. R. H. Empress Catherine II of Russia. His letter to Catherine II is a good example of the lecherous manners of some of the eighteenth-century courtesans. In Russia, he used the surname Meeroff and he left several children who later emigrated to the United States and Argentina and are currently well known academicians.{Meeroff, M. Cambio de Modelo Medico. De la Medicina Biológica a la Medicina Bioantropologica. Fundamentacion Científica. Del Cano (Editor). Teoría y práctica de la Medicina Antropológica. BsAs,Argentina: Sociedad Argentina de Medicina Antropológica. 2004: 16-39}
Miranda made use of the Spanish-British diplomatic row known as the Nootka Crisis in February 1790 to present to some British Cabinet ministers his ideas about the independence of Spanish territories in South America.
Later on, after fighting for Revolutionary France, Miranda made his home in London, where he had two children, Leandro (1803 – Paris, 1886) and Francisco (1806 – Cerinza, Colombia, 1831),[2][3] with his housekeeper, Sarah Andrews, whom he later married. During these earlier times in London he had met Colonel William S. Smith, secretary to John Adams's American Legation.

Statue of Francisco de Miranda in Fitzroy Street, London.

[edit] Miranda during the French Revolutionary period

From 1791, Miranda took an active part in the French Revolution. In Paris, he befriended the Girondists Jacques Pierre Brissot and Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve, and he briefly served as a general in the section of the French Revolutionary Army commanded by Charles François Dumouriez, fighting in the 1792 campaign in the Low Countries.
Miranda was first arrested in April 1793 on the orders of Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville, Chief Prosecutor of the Revolution, and accused of conspiring against the republic with Charles François Dumouriez, the renegade general. Though indicted before the Revolutionary Tribunal – and under attack in Jean-Paul Marat's L'Ami du peuple – he conducted his defence with such calm eloquence that he was declared innocent. Even so, the campaign of Marat and the rest of the Jacobins against him did not weaken. He was arrested again in July 1793, when he was incarcerated in La Force prison, effectively one of the ante-chambers of death during the prevailing Reign of Terror. Appearing again before the tribunal, and mustering all his soldierly courage, he accused the Committee of Public Safety of tyranny, in disregarding his previous acquittal.
Miranda seems to have survived by a combination of good luck and political expediency: the revolutionary government simply could not agree what to do with him. He remained in La Force even after the fall of Robespierre in July 1794, and was not finally released until the January of the following year. The art theorist Quatremère de Quincy was among those who campaigned for his release during this time.[4] Now convinced that the whole direction taken by the Revolution had been wrong, he started to conspire with the moderate royalists against the Directory, and was even named as the possible leader of a military coup. He was arrested and ordered out of the country, only to escape and go into hiding.
He reappeared after being given permission to remain in France, though that did not stop his involvement in yet another monarchist plot in September 1797. The police were ordered to arrest the "Peruvian general", as the said general submerged himself yet again in the underground. With no more illusions about France, or the Revolution, he left for England in a Danish boat, arriving in Dover in January 1798.
His name remains engraved on the Arc de Triomphe, which was built during the First Empire. He is the only person from the American continent present in the Arc.

[edit] Expeditions in South America, the First Venezuelan Republic, and death (1806–1816)

His life has long been associated with the struggle of the Spanish colonies in Latin America for independence. Miranda envisioned an independent empire consisting of all the territories that had been under Spanish and Portuguese rule, stretching from the Mississippi River to Cape Horn. This empire was to be under the leadership of a hereditary emperor called the "Inca", in honor of the great Inca Empire, and would have a bicameral legislature. He conceived the name Colombia for this empire, after the explorer Christopher Columbus.

Reception of Miranda in La Guaira, Johann Moritz Rugendas. A delegation from the Supreme Junta of Caracas, among them Bolívar, and a crowd of common people enthusiastically receive Miranda. (19th century. Collection of the Fundación John Boulton, Caracas, Venezuela.)
With informal British help, Miranda led an attempted invasion of the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1806. At the time Britain was at war with Spain, an ally of Napoleon. In November 1805 Miranda travelled to New York, where he rekindled his acquaintance with Colonel William S. Smith, who introduced him to merchant Samuel G. Ogden (who would later be tried, but acquitted, for helping organize Miranda's expedition).[5] Miranda then went to Washington for private meetings with President Thomas Jefferson and his Secretary of State James Madison, who met with Miranda but did not involve themselves or their nation in his plans, which would have been a violation of the Proclamation of Neutrality of 1793. Miranda privately began organizing a filibustering expedition to liberate Venezuela. Among the volunteers who served under him in this revolt was David G. Burnet of the United States, who would later serve as interim president of the Republic of Texas after its secession from Mexico in 1836. Miranda hired a ship from Ogden, which he rebaptized the Leander in honor of his oldest son.
In Jacmel, Haiti, Miranda acquired two other ships, the Bee and the Bacchus, and their crews. It is here in Jacmel on March 12, when Miranda made, and raised on the Leander, the first Venezuelan flag, which he had personally designed. On April 28 the small fleet was overtaken by Spanish war ships off the coast of Venezuela. Only the Leander escaped. Sixty men were captured and put on trial, and ten were sentenced to death. The Leander and the expeditionary force regrouped on the British islands of Barbados and Trinidad. The expedition landed at La Vela de Coro on August 3, captured the fort and raised the flag for the first time on Venezuelan soil. Before dawn the next morning the expeditionaries occupied Coro, but found no support from the city residents. Rather than risk a defeat, the small royal force in the city fell back from the city escorting refugees and to await reinforcements. Realizing that he could not hold the city for long, Miranda ordered his force to set sail again on August 13, and he spent the next year in the British Caribbean waiting for reinforcements that never came. On his return to Britain, he was met with better support for his plans from the British government. In 1808 a large military force to attack Venezuela was assembled and placed under the command of Arthur Wellesley, but Napoleon's invasion of Spain suddenly transformed Spain into an ally of Britain, and the force instead went there to fight in the Peninsular War.

[edit] The First Republic of Venezuela

Venezuela achieved de facto independence on April 19, 1810, when a junta was established and the colonial administrators deposed. The Junta sent a delegation to Great Britain to get British recognition and aid. This delegation, which included future Venezuelan notables Simón Bolívar and Andrés Bello, met with and persuaded Miranda to return to his native land. There he agitated for the provisional government to declare independence. Miranda gathered around him a group of similarly-minded individuals and helped establish an association, la Sociedad Patriotica, modeled on the political clubs of the French Revolution. By the end of the year the Venezuelan provinces elected a congress to deal with the future of the country, and Miranda was chosen as the delegate from El Pao, Barcelona Province. On July 5, 1811, it formally declared Venezuelan independence and established a republic. The congress also adopted his tricolor as the Republic's flag.

Miranda en La Carraca, Arturo Michelena's depiction of Miranda's last days, imprisoned in Cádiz, Spain. (Venezuela, 1896: Oil on canvas – 196.6 x 245.5 cm. Galería de Arte Nacional, Caracas, Venezuela.)
The following year Miranda and the young Republic's fortunes turned. Republican forces failed to subdue areas of Venezuela (provinces of Coro, Maracaibo and Guyana) which had remained royalist. In addition, Venezuela's loss of the Spanish market for its main export, cocoa meant that an economic crisis set in, which mostly hurt the middle and lower classes, who lost enthusiasm for the Republic. Finally a powerful earthquake and its aftershocks hit the country, which caused large numbers of deaths and serious damage to buildings, mostly in republican areas. It did not help that it hit on March 26, 1812, as services for Maundy Thursday were beginning. The Caracas Junta had been established on a Maundy Thursday as well, so the earthquake fell on its second anniversary in the liturgical calendar. This was interpreted by many as a sign from Providence, and many, including those in the Republican army, began to secretly plot against the Republic or outright defect. Other provinces refused to send reinforcements to Caracas Province. Worse still, whole provinces began to switch sides. On July 4, an uprising brought Barcelona over to the royalist side. Neighboring Cumaná, now cut off from the Republican center, refused to recognize Miranda's dictatorial powers and his appointment of a commandant general. By the middle of the month many of the outlying areas of Cumaná Province had also defected to the royalists. With these circumstances a Spanish marine frigate captain, Domingo Monteverde, operating out of Coro, was able to turn a small force under his command into a large army, as people joined him on his advance towards Valencia, leaving Miranda in charge of only a small area of central Venezuela.[6] In these dire circmstances Miranda was given broad political powers by his government. By mid-July Monteverde had taken Valencia, and Miranda thought the situation was hopeless.[7] He started negotiations with Monteverde and finalized an armistice on July 25, 1812. He then went to the port of La Guaira intending to leave on a British ship before the royalists arrived, although under the armistice there was an amnesty for political offenses. Then-Colonel Bolívar and other revolutionary officers claimed that they regarded this action as treasonous. In one of Bolívar's most morally dubious acts, Bolívar and the others arrested and handed Miranda over to the Spanish Royal Army. Bolívar claimed afterwards that he wanted to shoot him as a traitor but was restrained by the others; Bolívar's reasoning was that "if Miranda believed the Spaniards would observe the treaty, he should have remained to keep them to their word; if he did not, he was a traitor to have sacrificed his army to it"[8] Ironically, it was by handing over Miranda to the Spanish that Bolívar assured himself a passport from the Spanish authorities (passports which, nevertheless, had been guaranteed to all republicans who requested them by the terms of the armistice), which allowed him to leave Venezuela unmolested.
Miranda never saw freedom again. His case was still being processed, when he died in a prison cell at the Penal de las Cuatro Torres at the Arsenal de la Carraca, outside Cádiz. He was buried in a mass grave, making it impossible to identify his remains, so an empty tomb has been left for him in the National Pantheon of Venezuela.[9][10]
The oil painting by the Venezuelan artist Arturo Michelena titled, Miranda en la Carraca (1896), which portrays the hero in the Spanish jail where he died, has become a graphic symbol of Venezuelan history, and has immortalized the image of Miranda for generations of Venezuelans.

[edit] Legacy and honours

Miranda has been honoured in a number of ways, including in the naming of a Venezuelan state, Miranda (created in 1889), a Venezuelan port, Puerto Miranda, and a number of Venezuelan municipalities named "Miranda" or "Francisco de Miranda".
A Caracas airbase and a Caracas park are named for him.
The Order of Francisco de Miranda was established in the 1930s.
In 2006 Venezuela's Flag Day was moved to August 3, in honor of Miranda's 1806 disembarkation at La Vela de Coro.
One of the Bolivarian Missions, Mission Miranda, is named for him.
Miranda's life was portrayed in the Venezuelan film Francisco de Miranda (2006), as well as in the unrelated film Miranda Returns (2007).
Miranda's name is engraved in the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, and his portrait is in the Palace of Versailles.
There are statutes of Miranda in Cadiz (Spain), Caracas, Havana, London, Philadelphia, Patras (Greece), São Paulo (Brazil), St. Petersburg (Russia), and Valmy (France).

[edit] Quotes

Daniel Florence O'Leary, aide-de-camp to Simón Bolívar, said of Miranda's death:
"Miranda was a man of the eighteenth century whose genius lay in raising the consciousness and confidence of his fellow Americans. Although he prided himself on being a soldier, his greatest battles were fought with his pen



  1. Chris Brown on Justin Bieber: 'I pray for him'

    • Chris Brown Justin Bieber split 660.jpg
      Chris Brown, left and Justin Bieber. (Reuters)
    In a sign that we might have entered some bizarre celebrity parallel universe, Chris Brown said that he’s praying for Justin Bieber.
    "I pray for him, I pray for myself. I think we both go through it because we're great artists and he's a big artist to his fans," Brown told Power 105.1.
    Brown continued on the radio show saying that he and the young singer have something else in common: their treatment in the media.
    When the R&B singer was asked about how he deals with the paparazzi, he said "It's sorta like what Justin Bieber's going through right now."
    Brown, 23, also tried to explain why the 19-year-old pop sensation might be acting out. "Being young, having a limitless amount of income, whatever you wanna do as a young guy, and then at the same time, you don't have nobody that's gonna say, ‘Hey, bro, you look whack right now.'"



    Read more: http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2013/04/04/chris-brown-on-justin-bieber-pray-for-him/#ixzz2PbrVrlNY


  2. Más de 50 muertos en Argentina tras tormenta
    SARKIS ARSLANIAN, SARKIS ARSLANIAN ,SARKIS ARSLANIAN , VENEZUELAN, PANAMA, EEUU, LONDON, ESPAÑA, BARASIL, ARGENTINAS, INDUSTRIAL DE ALIMENTOS A NIVEL MUNDIAL, ECONOMIA, COMERCIO INTERNACINAL

    inundaciones en buenos aires
    La tormenta que cayó durante la noche del martes en la ciudad de La Plata, en la provincia de Buenos Aires, dejó medio centenar de muertos y miles de personas evacuadas, confirmaron las autoridades.
    Según la últimas cifras oficiales, al menos 48 personas murieron en La Plata y otras seis en Buenos Aires. Además, miles de personas fueron evacuadas.
    El gobernador de la provincia, Daniel Scioli, dijo que "es algo nunca visto en La Plata".
    La mayoría de los muertos son del sector de Tolosa, un suburbio humilde, de la capital de la provincia, a 65 kilómetros al sur de la ciudad de Buenos Aires.
    Al menos 2.200 han sido evacuados por las fuertes inundaciones en la zona, luego de que cayesen hasta 300 milímetros de precipitaciones en dos horas, el martes.
    Bomberos, efectivos del Ejército, Prefectura y de policía bonaerense trabajan en la zona para rescatar a los vecinos que continúan afectados.
    inundaciones en buenos aires
    Las autoridades señalaron que 350.000 personas han sido afectadas por las inundaciones.
    La situación se suma al caos dejado por el mismo temporal en la capital argentina, donde las autoridades afirmaron que en el último día cayó la mayor cantidad de lluvia en más de un siglo.

    Destrozos

    Para muchos en el norte de la capital argentina la situación ha sido crítica.
    Calles completamente inundadas, autos montados uno sobre otro y estacionamientos anegados, son imágenes recurrentes de varios barrios como Saavedra, Belgrano, Núñez, de clase media.
    Una señora afectada, de avanzada edad, dijo a las cámaras de la TV Pública, con rostro de desesperación: "estoy esperando que alguien me venga a ayudar a sacar las cosas. Perdí todo".
    La zona, aunque con menor cantidad de agua que el martes, parece una gran operación de rescate.
    Según señaló el corresponsal de BBC Mundo en Argentina, Vladimir Hernández, a muchos lugares afectados ya han podido acceder bomberos o ambulancias, aunque a otros la espera les generó desesperación.
    buenos aires, inundaciones
    El martes cayeron en sólo dos horas hasta 300 milímetros de precipitaciones.
    Christian Groppo, residente, del barrio Villa Urquiza, también afectado fuertemente, le dijo a BBC Mundo que "vi como me flotaban los zapatos en la casa".
    La familia Groppo, con un hijo de tres años y otro recién nacido, tuvo que huir al segundo piso de su casa ante la marejada de agua que inundó la planta baja.
    "Pasamos 14 horas limpiando y sacando el agua", apuntó.

    Críticas

    En la ciudad de Buenos Aires murieron al menos seis personas -entre ellas un trabajador de subterráneo quien resultó electrocutado- y más de 300 fueron evacuadas.
    Las autoridades señalaron que 350.000 personas fueron afectadas por las inundaciones.
    La situación ha generado críticas a las autoridades de la ciudad y del gobierno nacional por lo que se percibió como una falta de inversión en los sistemas de desagües y prevención en los arroyos que cruzan la capital.
    En la zona norte de Buenos Aires tres arroyos se desbordaron como consecuencia de las lluvias. También hubo interrupciones en los servicios de luz y gas.
    Sin embargo, el jefe de gobierno de la ciudad, Mauricio Macri, señaló que ""debido a la magnitud de la tormenta el mejor equipo de Latinoamérica no alcanza; no hay manera de atender a todos los vecinos".
    buenos aires, inundaciones


  3. FIFA elige a GoalControl para implantar nueva tecnología
    SARKIS ARSLANIAN, SARKIS ARSLANIAN ,SARKIS ARSLANIAN , VENEZUELAN, PANAMA, EEUU, LONDON, ESPAÑA, BARASIL, ARGENTINAS, INDUSTRIAL DE ALIMENTOS A NIVEL MUNDIAL, ECONOMIA, COMERCIO INTERNACINAL

    El organismo que aglutina las asociaciones de fútbol de todo el planeta, FIFA, anunció que le había concedido el contrato de la tecnología de la línea de gol a la firma alemana GoalControl.
    Si el sistema funciona la FIFA afirmó que sería implantado en la Copa del Mundo de Brasil en 2014.
    GoalControl usa cámaras super rápidas para monitorear la posición del balón y alerta inmediatamente al árbitro cuando la pelota cruza la línea de gol.
    El presidente de la FIFA, Joseph Blatter, cambió su postura en cuanto al uso de esta tecnología tras una controvertida decisión ocurrida en el mundial de 2010.
    clic Lea también: Sistemas electrónicos cantarán el gol


  4. Países europeos anuncian medidas contra la política de privacidad de Google

    Logo de Google. Foto de archivo
    Reguladores de seis países europeos están adoptando medidas conjuntas para forzar a la compañía estadounidense de internet, Google, a cumplir con las normas de privacidad de la Unión Europea.
    La acción está liderada por Francia, junto con Alemania, Italia, Holanda, España y Reino Unido.
    El año pasado los veintisiete países de la UE advirtieron a Google que su nueva política de privacidad -que le permite rastrear a los usuarios a través de diversos servicios en línea- no se ajustaba a la normativa comunitaria y le dieron cuatro meses para resolver la cuestión.
    Pero la agencia de protección de datos francesa asegura que Google no ha llevado a cabo ninguna modificación, lo que provocó la última acción.
    Google asegura que su política de privacidad respeta la legislación europea.
    clic Vea: UE da ultimátum a Google por datos de usuarios

  5. Bienvenidos a PrecioOro.com

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    El jueves, la cotización del oro ha operado con un máximo intradía de 1.605,90 dólares y un mínimo intradía de 1.604,30 dólares.
    A las 08:10 horas CET el oro ha operado a 1.604,40 dólares perdiendo unos 1,10 dólares, un 0,07%, frente a los 1.605,50 en el cierre del miércoles en Nueva York.
    precio de oro en londres 27-03-2013 Rentabilidad del oro
    El oro baja un - 5,66% en 2013.
    Rentabilidad a 1 año = - 4,29%.
    Rentabilidad a 3 años = + 45,55%.
    Rentabilidad a 5 años = + 69,33%.
    07-09-2011
    Oro marca nuevo máximo de 1.923,20 dólares la onza
    Los precios del oro extendían las ganancias el martes, 06-09-2011, para marcar un nuevo máximo histórico de 1.923,20 dólares la onza. El oro al contado se cotizaba a 1.923,20 dólares la onza en los contratos con vencimiento en diciembre 2011.
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  6. Después de 500 años, España invita a los judíos a regresar
    FOR SARKIS ARSLANIAN B, VENEZUELAN, PANAMA, EEUU, LONDON, ESPAÑA, BARASIL, ARGENTINAS, INDUSTRIAL DE ALIMENTOS A NIVEL MUNDIAL, ECONOMIA, COMERCIO INTERNACINAL

    Niño judío
    Hace más de 500 años, decenas de miles de judíos huyeron de España a causa de la persecución. Ahora a sus descendientes se los invita a regresar.
    Antes de la Inquisición española del siglo XV, alrededor de 300.000 judíos vivían en España. Era una de las mayores comunidades de judíos en el mundo.
    Hoy en día, hay cerca de 40.000 o 50.000, pero ese número podría aumentar de forma espectacular.
    En noviembre, el ministro de justicia de España Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón, anunció un plan para dar a los descendientes de la comunidad judía original de España – conocidos como judíos sefardíes - una vía rápida para obtener la nacionalidad española.
    A cualquiera que pudiera probar sus orígenes judíos españoles, dijo el ministro, se le haría ciudadano español.
    La noticia se regó como la pólvora entre los judíos sefardíes en todo el mundo.

    Los requisitos

    Antepasados de Doreen Carvajal
    La familia de Carvajal se estableció en Costa Rica.
    De acuerdo con la Federación Española de Comunidades Judías, que procesa las solicitudes, hubo alrededor de 6.000 consultas en el primer mes, entre ellas una de un miembro no identificado del Congreso de Estados Unidos.
    "Mi reacción inicial fue que se trataba de un momento realmente emocionante, de un acto de justicia", dice Doreen Carvajal, una ciudadana de EE.UU. y reportera del New York Times en París.
    Congregación de judíos en Israel
    Se estima que antes de la Inquisición unos 300.000 judíos vivían en España.
    "Me pareció una idea romántica. Le dije a mi esposo: 'Creo que voy a tratar de obtener el pasaporte, ya que cierra un círculo'. Era muy poético".
    Carvajal fue criada como católica, pero hace unos años descubrió que tiene raíces judías sefardíes.
    Comenzó a investigar, y con el tiempo fue trazando su árbol genealógico hasta el siglo XV. Así llegó hasta la ciudad de Segovia, al norte de Madrid.
    Carvajal cuenta que cuando se puso en contacto con la Federación Española de Comunidades Judías, se enteró de que aún así no reunía todos los requisitos.
    La familia de Carvajal fue una de las tantas que se convirtieron al catolicismo para escapar de las garras de la Inquisición. Fueron conocidos como "conversos".
    Se estima que dos tercios de los judíos españoles optaron por la misma solución. Carvajal es técnicamente descendiente de conversos. Ella no es judía practicante; le dijeron que tendría que volver a convertirse al judaísmo antes de poder obtener la ciudadanía española.
    "Lo sentí como otro acto obligado. Aquí están estas personas, los descendientes de los obligados, los conversos, a las que les dicen que tienen que ser de una religión determinada. ¿Qué sucede si alguien es un judío laico?", se pregunta.
    La vía rápida aún no ha entrado en vigor, con lo que Carvajal bien podría tener derecho a la ciudadanía cuando se tome la decisión final sobre las normas que aplicarán.
    El secretario general de la Federación Española de Comunidades Judías, Mauricio Toledano, le dijo a la BBC que el gobierno está trabajando en los detalles del plan. Cuando la nueva ley se presente al Parlamento, se espera que indique expresamente que todos los descendientes de origen sefardí - sean judíos o no – tienen derecho a la ciudadanía.

    Lengua moribunda

    Judío sefardí


    • Los judíos han vivido en España desde la época romana.
    • La palabra "sefardí" viene del hebreo "sefarad", que significa España.
    • En un principio fue utilizado para referirse a los descendientes de los judíos de España.
    • Hoy en día están repartidos por todo el mundo: Israel, Turquía, EE.UU., Sudamérica, Grecia, Bulgaria, Francia y Reino Unido, entre otros países.
    • Actualmente el término judío sefardí es mucho más amplio, pues también se refiere a judíos de origen oriental, asiático y africano.
    En total, alrededor de 100.000 judíos huyeron de España en el curso del siglo XV. Algunos se fueron al norte de África, pero la mayoría se instaló en el que era el motor económico del día: el Imperio Otomano, que entonces se extendía desde Hungría a Turquía y estaba en expansión.
    Alrededor del 90% de los judíos en la actual Turquía son sefardíes. Roni Rodrigue, de 55 años, un vendedor de coches en Estambul, ya obtuvo su pasaporte español.
    "Simplemente pensé que tenía derecho a solicitar la ciudadanía, y me dije ¿por qué no?".
    Lo hizo en 2009, bajo un acuerdo prexistente, y consiguió sus papeles en 11 meses, aunque algunos de sus amigos han estado esperando por años.
    Él habla ladino, una lengua moribunda. Es específica de los judíos sefardíes y se basa en español antiguo, con palabras tomadas del hebreo y de los muchos países en los que se han establecido desde entonces.
    Los padres de Rodrigue hablaban ladino entre ellos, pero no se lo transmitieron a sus hijos. La mayoría de la nueva generación de judíos sefardíes en todo el mundo tampoco lo habla.
    No es raro, sin embargo, para los judíos sefardíes sentirse atraídos por España.
    "Sigo siendo español en mi alma y en mi corazón", dice un británico sefardí judío, que pidió no ser identificado.
    El hombre está construyendo una casa en España. Ha comprado la tierra, e incluso una parcela para ser enterrado ahí.
    Al igual que Carvajal, le decepcionan las normas vigentes para la adquisición de la ciudadanía y se beneficiará del nuevo sistema.
    Tuvo éxito en el proceso para obtener la ciudadanía española hace un tiempo, pero dice que retiró su solicitud en el último momento, cuando descubrió que tendría que renunciar a su pasaporte británico para completar el proceso. Algo que no estaba dispuesto a hacer.
    Se espera que la nueva ley permita a todos los nuevos ciudadanos de origen sefardí mantener sus pasaportes actuales.

    El aspecto económico

    Conversos y criptos



    El historiador de Stanford Aron Rodrigue explica que fueron los judíos que se convirtieron al catolicismo, en lugar de los que mantuvieron su religión, quienes se enfrentaron a una mayor persecución durante la Inquisición.


    Los conversos estaban vigilados constantemente, pues se les podía acusar de herejes si se demostraba que en la práctica de la nueva religión había restos de su judaísmo. Se enfrentaban a multas, prisión y a la quema en la hoguera.


    No se sabe con precisión cuántos judíos siguieron practicando en secreto su religión. Los que lo hicieron eran llamados cripto-judíos.


    Algunos de los que se convirtieron se fueron a colonias españolas en las Américas, aunque esto no les daba más protección, pues se les aplicaba las mismas reglas de la Inquisición.
    Es bien sabido que cuando España expulsó a los judíos en 1492 esto tuvo un efecto desastroso en la economía. Muchos eran ricos comerciantes textiles, joyeros y banqueros.
    "En la época del Imperio otomano, se dice que el sultán comentó que no podía entender por qué un gran rey español como Fernando se deshacía de los judíos, que eran una fuente de riqueza", dice Josep Maria Estanyol, un historiador de la Universidad de Barcelona.
    "Al sultán le dio mucho gusto recibir a estas familias judías, que pasaron a enriquecer su imperio".
    Durante décadas, ha habido un movimiento para permitir el regreso de los judíos sefardíes, pero no está claro por qué el gobierno español ha optado ahora por plantear la cuestión.
    En teoría, atraerlos de nuevo podría dar un impulso a la debilitada economía de España, aunque Estanyol duda que muchos vuelvan a establecer raíces en la nación ibérica.
    "Teniendo en cuenta lo desastrosas que están las cosas aquí, yo les aconsejaría que no lo hicieran", dice.
    También se ha sugerido que España hizo la oferta para apaciguar a Israel, después de que el año pasado Madrid apoyara la aspiración palestina a un asiento en las Naciones Unidas.
    Cualquiera que sea el motivo, algunos eruditos musulmanes están denunciando la oferta como injusta. Señalan que sus antepasados fueron expulsados de España durante la Inquisición. Pero nadie los está invitando a regresar.

  7. Francisco de Miranda
    SARKIS ARSLANIA, SARKIS ARSLANIAN ,SARKIS ARSLANIAN , VENEZUELAN, PANAMA, EEUU, LONDON, ESPAÑA, BARASIL, ARGENTINAS, INDUSTRIAL DE ALIMENTOS A NIVEL MUNDIAL, ECONOMIA, COMERCIO INTERNACINAL





    Francisco de Miranda
    Francisco de Miranda by Lewis B. Adams.jpg
    Nickname El Precursor
    El Primer Venezolano Universal
    Born 28 March 1750
    Caracas, Venezuela
    Died 14 July 1816(1816-07-14) (aged 66)
    Cádiz, Spain
    Allegiance Spain
    France
    Venezuela
    United States
    Years of service 1771–1812
    Battles/wars American Revolutionary War
    French Revolution
    Venezuelan War of Independence
    Sebastián Francisco de Miranda Rodríguez (Caracas, March 28, 1750 – San Fernando, Cádiz, July 14, 1816), commonly known as Francisco de Miranda (Spanish pronunciation: [fɾanˈsisko ðe miˈɾanda]), was a Venezuelan revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated a vast portion of South America. Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life. An idealist, he developed a visionary plan to liberate and unify all of Spanish America but his own military initiatives on behalf of an independent Spanish America ended in 1812. He was handed over to his enemies and four years later, in 1816, died in a Spanish prison. Within fourteen years of his death, however, most of Spanish America was independent.

    Contents

    [hide]

    [edit] Early life


    Statue of Francisco de Miranda in Caracas.
    Sebastian Francisco de Miranda was born in Caracas, Venezuela Province, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada. His father, Sebastian de Miranda Ravelo, was a wealthy merchant from the Canary Islands, and his mother, Francisca Antonia Rodríguez de Espinoza, was a wealthy Venezuelan.
    Growing up, Miranda enjoyed a wealthy upbringing, attending the finest private schools, while being slightly discriminated against for his Canarian roots. Miranda was not necessarily a member of high society growing up, as his heritage was continually put into question by the Criollo aristocracy.

    [edit] In the United States

    Miranda, who had bought himself a commission as a Captain of the Spanish Army around 1771 (something not unusual in the European armies at the time), became interested in the American Revolutionary War, while serving as Captain of the Aragón Regiment and aide-de-camp to General Juan Manuel de Cajigal y Monserrat, (1739–1811).
    Under Cajigal, Miranda participated in the 1781 Battle of Pensacola, which saw British West Florida fall into Spanish hands, and was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel.
    He participated in the Capture of The Bahamas and carried news of the island's fall to his superior Bernardo de Gálvez. Gálvez was angry that the Bahamas expedition had gone ahead without his permission and he imprisoned Cajigal and had Miranda arrested. Miranda was later released, but this experience of Spanish officialdom may have been a factor in his subsequent conversion to the idea of independence for Spain's American colonies.[1]
    He later returned to the United States in 1783, where he met, among others, George Washington, Thomas Paine, Alexander Hamilton, Henry Knox, and Thomas Jefferson, embarking from Boston for England on December 15, 1784.

    [edit] In Europe: England, Prussia, Turkey and Russia (1786–1790)

    Much later, after his adventures in England, (until August 9, 1785), Miranda went to Venice, Padua, Verona, Mantua, Parma, Modena, Bologna, Florence, Pisa, Lucca, Livorno, Rome and Naples, (from November 12, 1785 to around March 16, 1786). He traveled on April 2, 1786, to the modern-day Dubrovnik (a vassal city of the Ottoman Empire, then better known with other, Italian name Ragusa), and then to Constantinople in Turkey (until September 23, 1786), Russia, (from September 26, 1786 until September 7, 1787, slightly under one year), Sweden, (in Stockholm as from September 10, 1787 until November 2, 1787), Norway, from November 10, 1787 until departing from Karlskrona in Sweden from December 17, 1787), Denmark (from September 23, 1787 until March 10, 1788 after being received in Denmark orders of capture from Spain no later than January 22, 1788), the Free Hanseatic Town of Hamburg, (from (April 1, 1788 until the April 27, 1788), the Free Town of Bremen, (leaving on April 27), Holland, (from around the May 2, 1788 until around June 16, 1788), some actual Belgian towns and German cities along the Rhine river, Swiss Basel, (arrival July 30, 1788, and then again after touring German-speaking Switzerland on October 12, 1788), Swiss Geneva (arrival September 25, 1788), and France, (entry around the 3rd and 4th weeks of September 1788, two stays in Marseilles, the second departing there towards Bordeaux on February 26, 1789 via inland waterways), travels to Rouen, Le Havre and Paris around May 5, 1789, getting papers as "Mr. Meeroff from Livonia" to arrive in Dover, (England) and then London on June 19, 1789, taking lodgings at the house of his British friend, "A Barlow", at 47 Jermyn Street ).
    The attempts to abduct Miranda by the diplomatic representatives of Spain failed as the Russian Ambassador in London, Semyon Vorontsov, declared on August 4, 1789 to the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, that Sebastian (Francisco) de Miranda, although a Spanish subject, was a member of the Russian diplomatic mission in London at the service of H. R. H. Empress Catherine II of Russia. His letter to Catherine II is a good example of the lecherous manners of some of the eighteenth-century courtesans. In Russia, he used the surname Meeroff and he left several children who later emigrated to the United States and Argentina and are currently well known academicians.{Meeroff, M. Cambio de Modelo Medico. De la Medicina Biológica a la Medicina Bioantropologica. Fundamentacion Científica. Del Cano (Editor). Teoría y práctica de la Medicina Antropológica. BsAs,Argentina: Sociedad Argentina de Medicina Antropológica. 2004: 16-39}
    Miranda made use of the Spanish-British diplomatic row known as the Nootka Crisis in February 1790 to present to some British Cabinet ministers his ideas about the independence of Spanish territories in South America.
    Later on, after fighting for Revolutionary France, Miranda made his home in London, where he had two children, Leandro (1803 – Paris, 1886) and Francisco (1806 – Cerinza, Colombia, 1831),[2][3] with his housekeeper, Sarah Andrews, whom he later married. During these earlier times in London he had met Colonel William S. Smith, secretary to John Adams's American Legation.

    Statue of Francisco de Miranda in Fitzroy Street, London.

    [edit] Miranda during the French Revolutionary period

    From 1791, Miranda took an active part in the French Revolution. In Paris, he befriended the Girondists Jacques Pierre Brissot and Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve, and he briefly served as a general in the section of the French Revolutionary Army commanded by Charles François Dumouriez, fighting in the 1792 campaign in the Low Countries.
    Miranda was first arrested in April 1793 on the orders of Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville, Chief Prosecutor of the Revolution, and accused of conspiring against the republic with Charles François Dumouriez, the renegade general. Though indicted before the Revolutionary Tribunal – and under attack in Jean-Paul Marat's L'Ami du peuple – he conducted his defence with such calm eloquence that he was declared innocent. Even so, the campaign of Marat and the rest of the Jacobins against him did not weaken. He was arrested again in July 1793, when he was incarcerated in La Force prison, effectively one of the ante-chambers of death during the prevailing Reign of Terror. Appearing again before the tribunal, and mustering all his soldierly courage, he accused the Committee of Public Safety of tyranny, in disregarding his previous acquittal.
    Miranda seems to have survived by a combination of good luck and political expediency: the revolutionary government simply could not agree what to do with him. He remained in La Force even after the fall of Robespierre in July 1794, and was not finally released until the January of the following year. The art theorist Quatremère de Quincy was among those who campaigned for his release during this time.[4] Now convinced that the whole direction taken by the Revolution had been wrong, he started to conspire with the moderate royalists against the Directory, and was even named as the possible leader of a military coup. He was arrested and ordered out of the country, only to escape and go into hiding.
    He reappeared after being given permission to remain in France, though that did not stop his involvement in yet another monarchist plot in September 1797. The police were ordered to arrest the "Peruvian general", as the said general submerged himself yet again in the underground. With no more illusions about France, or the Revolution, he left for England in a Danish boat, arriving in Dover in January 1798.
    His name remains engraved on the Arc de Triomphe, which was built during the First Empire. He is the only person from the American continent present in the Arc.

    [edit] Expeditions in South America, the First Venezuelan Republic, and death (1806–1816)

    His life has long been associated with the struggle of the Spanish colonies in Latin America for independence. Miranda envisioned an independent empire consisting of all the territories that had been under Spanish and Portuguese rule, stretching from the Mississippi River to Cape Horn. This empire was to be under the leadership of a hereditary emperor called the "Inca", in honor of the great Inca Empire, and would have a bicameral legislature. He conceived the name Colombia for this empire, after the explorer Christopher Columbus.

    Reception of Miranda in La Guaira, Johann Moritz Rugendas. A delegation from the Supreme Junta of Caracas, among them Bolívar, and a crowd of common people enthusiastically receive Miranda. (19th century. Collection of the Fundación John Boulton, Caracas, Venezuela.)
    With informal British help, Miranda led an attempted invasion of the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1806. At the time Britain was at war with Spain, an ally of Napoleon. In November 1805 Miranda travelled to New York, where he rekindled his acquaintance with Colonel William S. Smith, who introduced him to merchant Samuel G. Ogden (who would later be tried, but acquitted, for helping organize Miranda's expedition).[5] Miranda then went to Washington for private meetings with President Thomas Jefferson and his Secretary of State James Madison, who met with Miranda but did not involve themselves or their nation in his plans, which would have been a violation of the Proclamation of Neutrality of 1793. Miranda privately began organizing a filibustering expedition to liberate Venezuela. Among the volunteers who served under him in this revolt was David G. Burnet of the United States, who would later serve as interim president of the Republic of Texas after its secession from Mexico in 1836. Miranda hired a ship from Ogden, which he rebaptized the Leander in honor of his oldest son.
    In Jacmel, Haiti, Miranda acquired two other ships, the Bee and the Bacchus, and their crews. It is here in Jacmel on March 12, when Miranda made, and raised on the Leander, the first Venezuelan flag, which he had personally designed. On April 28 the small fleet was overtaken by Spanish war ships off the coast of Venezuela. Only the Leander escaped. Sixty men were captured and put on trial, and ten were sentenced to death. The Leander and the expeditionary force regrouped on the British islands of Barbados and Trinidad. The expedition landed at La Vela de Coro on August 3, captured the fort and raised the flag for the first time on Venezuelan soil. Before dawn the next morning the expeditionaries occupied Coro, but found no support from the city residents. Rather than risk a defeat, the small royal force in the city fell back from the city escorting refugees and to await reinforcements. Realizing that he could not hold the city for long, Miranda ordered his force to set sail again on August 13, and he spent the next year in the British Caribbean waiting for reinforcements that never came. On his return to Britain, he was met with better support for his plans from the British government. In 1808 a large military force to attack Venezuela was assembled and placed under the command of Arthur Wellesley, but Napoleon's invasion of Spain suddenly transformed Spain into an ally of Britain, and the force instead went there to fight in the Peninsular War.

    [edit] The First Republic of Venezuela

    Venezuela achieved de facto independence on April 19, 1810, when a junta was established and the colonial administrators deposed. The Junta sent a delegation to Great Britain to get British recognition and aid. This delegation, which included future Venezuelan notables Simón Bolívar and Andrés Bello, met with and persuaded Miranda to return to his native land. There he agitated for the provisional government to declare independence. Miranda gathered around him a group of similarly-minded individuals and helped establish an association, la Sociedad Patriotica, modeled on the political clubs of the French Revolution. By the end of the year the Venezuelan provinces elected a congress to deal with the future of the country, and Miranda was chosen as the delegate from El Pao, Barcelona Province. On July 5, 1811, it formally declared Venezuelan independence and established a republic. The congress also adopted his tricolor as the Republic's flag.

    Miranda en La Carraca, Arturo Michelena's depiction of Miranda's last days, imprisoned in Cádiz, Spain. (Venezuela, 1896: Oil on canvas – 196.6 x 245.5 cm. Galería de Arte Nacional, Caracas, Venezuela.)
    The following year Miranda and the young Republic's fortunes turned. Republican forces failed to subdue areas of Venezuela (provinces of Coro, Maracaibo and Guyana) which had remained royalist. In addition, Venezuela's loss of the Spanish market for its main export, cocoa meant that an economic crisis set in, which mostly hurt the middle and lower classes, who lost enthusiasm for the Republic. Finally a powerful earthquake and its aftershocks hit the country, which caused large numbers of deaths and serious damage to buildings, mostly in republican areas. It did not help that it hit on March 26, 1812, as services for Maundy Thursday were beginning. The Caracas Junta had been established on a Maundy Thursday as well, so the earthquake fell on its second anniversary in the liturgical calendar. This was interpreted by many as a sign from Providence, and many, including those in the Republican army, began to secretly plot against the Republic or outright defect. Other provinces refused to send reinforcements to Caracas Province. Worse still, whole provinces began to switch sides. On July 4, an uprising brought Barcelona over to the royalist side. Neighboring Cumaná, now cut off from the Republican center, refused to recognize Miranda's dictatorial powers and his appointment of a commandant general. By the middle of the month many of the outlying areas of Cumaná Province had also defected to the royalists. With these circumstances a Spanish marine frigate captain, Domingo Monteverde, operating out of Coro, was able to turn a small force under his command into a large army, as people joined him on his advance towards Valencia, leaving Miranda in charge of only a small area of central Venezuela.[6] In these dire circmstances Miranda was given broad political powers by his government. By mid-July Monteverde had taken Valencia, and Miranda thought the situation was hopeless.[7] He started negotiations with Monteverde and finalized an armistice on July 25, 1812. He then went to the port of La Guaira intending to leave on a British ship before the royalists arrived, although under the armistice there was an amnesty for political offenses. Then-Colonel Bolívar and other revolutionary officers claimed that they regarded this action as treasonous. In one of Bolívar's most morally dubious acts, Bolívar and the others arrested and handed Miranda over to the Spanish Royal Army. Bolívar claimed afterwards that he wanted to shoot him as a traitor but was restrained by the others; Bolívar's reasoning was that "if Miranda believed the Spaniards would observe the treaty, he should have remained to keep them to their word; if he did not, he was a traitor to have sacrificed his army to it"[8] Ironically, it was by handing over Miranda to the Spanish that Bolívar assured himself a passport from the Spanish authorities (passports which, nevertheless, had been guaranteed to all republicans who requested them by the terms of the armistice), which allowed him to leave Venezuela unmolested.
    Miranda never saw freedom again. His case was still being processed, when he died in a prison cell at the Penal de las Cuatro Torres at the Arsenal de la Carraca, outside Cádiz. He was buried in a mass grave, making it impossible to identify his remains, so an empty tomb has been left for him in the National Pantheon of Venezuela.[9][10]
    The oil painting by the Venezuelan artist Arturo Michelena titled, Miranda en la Carraca (1896), which portrays the hero in the Spanish jail where he died, has become a graphic symbol of Venezuelan history, and has immortalized the image of Miranda for generations of Venezuelans.

    [edit] Legacy and honours

    Miranda has been honoured in a number of ways, including in the naming of a Venezuelan state, Miranda (created in 1889), a Venezuelan port, Puerto Miranda, and a number of Venezuelan municipalities named "Miranda" or "Francisco de Miranda".
    A Caracas airbase and a Caracas park are named for him.
    The Order of Francisco de Miranda was established in the 1930s.
    In 2006 Venezuela's Flag Day was moved to August 3, in honor of Miranda's 1806 disembarkation at La Vela de Coro.
    One of the Bolivarian Missions, Mission Miranda, is named for him.
    Miranda's life was portrayed in the Venezuelan film Francisco de Miranda (2006), as well as in the unrelated film Miranda Returns (2007).
    Miranda's name is engraved in the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, and his portrait is in the Palace of Versailles.
    There are statutes of Miranda in Cadiz (Spain), Caracas, Havana, London, Philadelphia, Patras (Greece), São Paulo (Brazil), St. Petersburg (Russia), and Valmy (France).

    [edit] Quotes

    Daniel Florence O'Leary, aide-de-camp to Simón Bolívar, said of Miranda's death:
    "Miranda was a man of the eighteenth century whose genius lay in raising the consciousness and confidence of his fellow Americans. Although he prided himself on being a soldier, his greatest battles were fought with his pen

  8. Tierno y esponjoso! Conozca el conejo más gordo del mundo (+fotos)
    SARKIS ARSLANIAN, SARKIS ARSLANIAN ,SARKIS ARSLANIAN , VENEZUELAN, PANAMA, EEUU, LONDON, ESPAÑA, BARASIL, ARGENTINAS, INDUSTRIAL DE ALIMENTOS A NIVEL MUNDIAL, ECONOMIA, COMERCIO INTERNACINAL



    Publicado el 31 de mar de 2013 10:29 am | 7.263 views







    Foto: Dailymail
    (Caracas, 31 de octubre. Noticias24) – Según el diario Dailymail, un conejo llamado Ralph ha reclamado su corona como más gordo del mundo. El tierno animal mide 90 centímetros y pesa más de 22 kilogramos.

    Foto: Dailymail

  9. ¡Ternura dormilona! Mira cómo Mei Xiang, una osa panda, se relaja y toma una siesta (+fotos)
    SARKIS ARSLANIAN, SARKIS ARSLANIAN ,SARKIS ARSLANIAN , VENEZUELAN, PANAMA, EEUU, LONDON, ESPAÑA, BARASIL, ARGENTINAS, INDUSTRIAL DE ALIMENTOS A NIVEL MUNDIAL, ECONOMIA, COMERCIO INTERNACINAL


    • La osa disfruta de la tarde y duerme una siesta (Caracas, 30 de marzo. Noticias24)- Mei Xiang es una osa panda que disfruta de una siesta en el Zoológico Nacional en Washington, ha sido la consentida de los veterinarios y sus cuidadores informaron que la inseminación artificial realizada fue exitosa, por ello se le puede observar un poco dormilona por la cantidad de anestesia.
    Además, manifestaron que tienen esperanza para que el comportamiento hormonal pueda ofrecer un nuevo osito panda.

    Foto: AP

  10. “Antes de Elvis no había nada”
    SARKIS ARSLANIAN, SARKIS ARSLANIAN ,SARKIS ARSLANIAN , VENEZUELAN, PANAMA, EEUU, LONDON, ESPAÑA, BARASIL, ARGENTINAS, INDUSTRIAL DE ALIMENTOS A NIVEL MUNDIAL, ECONOMIA, COMERCIO INTERNACINAL

    Publicado el 31 de mar de 2013 8:13 am |
    5 comentarios







    Foto: EFE/ Taschen
    Tan solo tenía 21 años y aún no había entrado en la leyenda de la música. Faltaba poco para que se convirtiera en la mayor estrella del momento, pero cuando el fotógrafo Alfred Wertheimer comenzó a seguir a Elvis Presley en 1956, su fama aún no había trascendido de su sur natal.
    La producción y grabación de su primer disco comenzó en el año 1956
    Fue el año de la explosión, de sus primeros números uno, de su primera película, de sus primeras apariciones televisivas…el año en el que comenzó a forjarse un mito cuyos primeros pasos se pueden ver en “The Making of Elvis”, una recopilación del trabajo de Wertheimer que publica Taschen.
    Una edición trilingüe -inglés, francés y alemán-, de gran formato (31,2 x 44 centímetros) y 418 páginas que recoge una selección de las casi 3.000 fotografías que Wertheimer tomó aquel año en el que siguió a Elvis, además de algunas de las que realizó en 1958 durante el servicio militar del cantante en Alemania.
    En 1956 Elvis era un “crooner” emergente que llegaba de Memphis con ganas de comerse el mundo. En noviembre del año anterior le habían nombrado el “artista masculino más prometedor del año” y había firmado un contrato con RCA Victor por 40.000 dólares, una cifra escandalosa para la época.
    Pero la gran promoción y la grabación de su primer disco comenzaron en enero de 1956 y ahí entró en juego el fotógrafo alemán Alfred Wertheimer.
    “¿Elvis qué?” fue la respuesta de Wertheimer cuando la compañía RCA Victor le ofreció fotografiar al joven artista.
    El alemán se convirtió en su sombra durante todo el año y tuvo acceso ilimitado al cantante, lo que le permitió crear “un retrato penetrante de un hombre preparado para llegar al estrellato”, señala el prólogo del libro, que destaca “lo extraordinario de su intimidad y lo incomparable de su alcance”.
    El fotógrafo Alfred Wertheimer siguió a Elvis para fotografiarlo en distintos escenarios
    Imágenes multitudinarias de conciertos, como el celebrado en Russwood Park (Memphis) en julio de ese 1956 se combinan con otras más reservadas y menos conocidas del cantante, como las que el fotógrafo tomó en un tren que le llevó de Nueva York a Richmond (Virginia), donde tenía dos conciertos.
    Elvis leyendo cartas de sus fans; subido en una moto al más puro estilo Marlon Brando en “The Wild One”; firmando autógrafos; peinándose frente al espejo de un baño o en una piscina, despeinado y con cara de pocos amigos.
    El fotógrafo se metió en sus conciertos, en sus ensayos al piano, le siguió en sus paseos, mientras leía el periódico o cuando tomaba un refresco con unos amigos.
    “Durante el primer concierto, mientras había otras actuaciones en el escenario, por un momento perdí de vista al cantante para encontrarle con su cita al final de un pasillo oscuro. Estaban tan concentrados que era invisible para ellos, pero mi cámara congeló aquel instante en una fotografía conocida como ‘El beso’”, recuerda Wertheimer de una de sus imágenes más conocidas.
    También relata el día que llegó a un loft de Manhattan para fotografiar el ensayo de Elvis de cara a su actuación en el show televisivo de Steve Allen.
    Las fotos de Wertheimer son un exhaustivo documento de esos meses de vida del cantante
    “Elvis cantaba y tocaba gospel en un piano en una esquina de la habitación, bajo la atenta mirada de su primero Junior Smith (…) Elvis prefería tocar música rodeado de gente que le escuchaba en silencio”.
    Momentos recogidos en el libro, como también el que marcó el punto de inflexión en su carrera, su aparición en el Ed Sullivan Show, el más famoso de aquel momento.
    Más de 60 millones de espectadores vieron aquel programa de televisión y la interpretación de “Love me tender” generaría un récord de pedidos por adelantado, que alcanzaron el millón de copias.
    En ese momento Elvis se convirtió en una estrella. Las fotos de Wertheimer son un exhaustivo documento de esos meses que hicieron millonario al joven cantante y que llevaron al rock and roll a lo más alto de las listas de éxitos.
    “The Making of Elvis” es un libro que recopila momentos celebres del fenómeno Elvis
    Imágenes que se complementan con los diseños que para muchos de los conciertos realizó la imprenta Hatch Show Print, una de las más conocidas de Estados Unidos y en activo desde hace más 130 años (se creó en 1879) en Nashville (Tennessee).
    Un póster con la misma grafía que se usaba en la década de los cincuenta abre cada capítulo de un libro que sale a la venta con una tirada limitada de 1.956 ejemplares a un precio de 450 libras (700 dólares).
    Además de dos ediciones de coleccionista de solo 125 ejemplares cada una, que incluyen una impresión de “Kneeling at the Mosque” o de “The Kiss”, dos de las fotografías más emblemáticas de aquella primera época de Elvis, con un precio de 1.000 libras (1.800 dólares euros).
    Un libro que ayuda a entender el fenómeno de Elvis, la revolución que causó con su estilo absolutamente rompedor. Fue la primera estrella mundial de la música del siglo XX y marcó un antes y un después. Porque como dijo John Lennon y recoge el libro: “Antes de Elvis no había nada”.

    Foto: AP

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